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A Catastrophe for Cosmology - The Neglect of Riemannian Torsion


The Neglect of Riemannian Torsion - a Catastrophe for Cosmology
M. W. Evans,
Civil List Scientist


In this essay it is argued that the Einstein field equation is fundamentally incorrect, a catastrophe for twentieth century cosmology. The reason is the adoption of an incorrect symmetry for the object that introduces torsion and curvature into four dimensional spacetime. This quantity is known as "the connection", an obscure terminology adopted at the start of the twentieth century when the first papers began to be published on tensor calculus. The torsion and curvature in Riemann geometry are the two fundamental tensors that describe the characteristics of spacetime in four dimensions. The Einstein field equation was based on only one of them, the curvature, because the field equation adopted the wrong type of symmetry for the connection. Recent scholarship has shown that the connection must be antisymmetric in its lower two indices: it must change sign when these two indices are interchanged. This is easy to show, and it is not known why the early protagonists adopted the wrong symmetry. The consequences of this error are catastrophic for cosmology, because all solutions of the Einstein field equation are incorrect and meaningless to physics. These solutions are usually expressed in objects known as metrics. Among these metric solutions are metrics of Big Bang, which is a concept introduced by Hawking and Penrose from the Einstein field equation, specifically from a metric devised in the twenties by Robertson, Walker, Friedmann and Lemaitre. "Big Bang" was a derogatory term introduced by Hoyle to oppose Hawking and Penrose. When the correct antisymmetry of the connection is used, and when the correct, torsion inclusive, geometry is used (the Evans Identity), this metric fails catastrophically. So Big Bang is meaningless in mathematics and physics. Recent scholarship using the Evans Identity shows that all the metrics of the Einstein field equation fail the test of this Identity, a rigorous, self checking, Identity of geometry in four dimensions. The correct field equations are those of Einstein Cartan Evans (ECE) unified field theory, which has replaced the Einstein field equation to great international acclaim. There is no Big Bang, there are no black holes, there is no dark matter. An entirely new cosmology has been devised using ECE theory, one which successfully describes all known orbits, including features that the Einstein field equation is wholly unable to describe (the orbits of stars in spiral galaxies, binary pulsar orbits, and solar system anomalies for example). Several other leading intellectuals of the twentieth century have also criticized the Einstein field equation for no less the ninety years: for example Schroedinger, Dirac, Eddington, and Levi-Civita. It is not known why these criticisms are ignored by current dogmatists. Big Bang has been severely criticized by many scholars for many years. Dogmatists by definition ignore reason, and so dogmatists are not scientists. This is the essence of the idol of the cave in the philosophy of Bacon, the very foundation of science. The latter must be based on simplicity, reason and observation.  By "idol of the cave" Bacon meant the dream (classical Greek "idol") or fantasy that the human mind produces in the darkness of its cave. This is dream because it is a figment of the imagination untested by nature (experimental data). Dogma is such a dream, or some may call it a nightmare


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