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Frequently asked questions

  1. What is ECE ?
  2. Is energy from spacetime the same as "Energy from the Vacuum" ?
  3. Is Spin Connection Resonance (SCR) free energy ?
  4. How can I build a motor, generator or any circuit using Spin Connection Resonance ?
  5. Is the Bedini SG motor a perpetual motion machine ?
  6. Are there any publically observable phenomena that serves as experimental proof for ECE ?
  7. Where does the electric field of an electron come from ?
  8. What is the B(3) field ?
  1. What is ECE ?

    ECE stands for Einstein-Cartan-Evans Field Theory. It is a generally covariant unified field theory developed by Myron Evans in 2003. It has nothing to do with superluminal theories, the paranormal nor the supernatural. If you have an interest in those subjects we recommend this website.

  2. Is energy from spacetime the same as "Energy from the Vacuum" ?

    No. "Space Energy" or "Energy from Spacetime" is energy derived from the geometry of spacetime. An apple gains kinetic energy from the gravitational part of the geometry of spacetime when it drops from a tree (and so does the earth).

    If the vacuum is considered to be non-empty as in quantum electrodynamics, there might be a similarity in the result, but the concept of ECE is more fundamental and clear. In the ECE theory, the zero point energy comes from the zero'th eigenvalue of the ECE Lemma with harmonic oscillator eigenfunctions.

    The reader should be aware
    that "space energy" is a small part of ECE and is not our primary focus. The AIAS is interested mainly in a full geometrical description of physics.

  3. Is Spin Connection Resonance (SCR) free energy ?

    No. There is no "free energy". ECE theory predicts that voltages can reach infinity through SCR. This is no different from the electromagnetic spectrum having no limit. SCR does not violate Noether's Theorem and it does not create energy from nothing. It is simply a high voltage caused by a particular type of oscillation (resonance) of a collection of charges by three or more external frequencies.

    Unfortunately, the necessary frequencies for various materials are either far too high (X-Rays) or unknown, making the design of SCR circuits very, very difficult and prohibitively expensive. For example, SCR will allow one to ionize diatomic oxygen (and make it glow green) at much lower power but this would require the incident electromagnetic waves to be gamma- or x-rays. So, for many things, SCR is impractical. Determining the necessary frequencies and creating exotic core materials for SCR would make an interesting project for a materials scientist.

    However, there is anecdotal evidence that Germanium semiconductors and mild steel can exhibit SCR-induced voltage surges for many frequency and amplitude combinations in the radio frequency range.This is spin connection resonance on a macroscopic level, compared to molecular processes.
    We suspect that the Bedini SG motor provides evidence for this hypothesis. This still needs to be verified rigorously.

    Currently, the only experiment/device that we know of that demonstrates SCR is Bedini's SG motor although the voltage gains are not much (see paper 94 ) . This conclusion is based on our own replication of the device ( without any assistance or communication from Bedini himself ). Previously, there were devices/experiments that were good candidates but the AIAS never had the opportunity to test them.

  4. How can I build a motor, generator or any circuit using Spin Connection Resonance ?

    While keeping point #3 in mind, paper 63 and paper 94 are good places to start although the mathematics involved (e.g. differential geometry, Fourier methods & numerical methods) is far from trivial. The AIAS cannot really assist in this area as we concern ourselves mainly with the theory. We do not build nor sell devices. However, we currently endorse Bedini SG motor with respect to SCR only based on our own replication and testing. Whether it can be scaled up remains to be seen. We do not endorse his other devices.

  5. Is the Bedini SG motor a perpetual motion machine ?

    NO - but this is certainly a valid question, especially with the recent fiasco of Steorn and the resemblance of this Bedini device to patents for historical perpetual motion machines from a century ago. Actually, one can substitute the rotor in this specific Bedini device with a solid state circuit. The function of the rotor or the circuit is to peturb the magnetic field of the main circuit but it is easy to see why people would invoke the dreaded label of "perpetual motion". A more technical explanation is required to understand this apparant violation of thermodynamics :

    The spin connection is essential to Cartan geometry and general relativity, because it is the entity that introduces torsion and curvature into spacetime. In ECE theory it comes in to the definition of the electromagnetic potential and electromagnetic field. The way in which it enters the theory allows resonances, which are peaks or surges of electric power from spacetime. This happens while rigorously obeying the basic law of conservation of energy (see point #3 ).

    The spacetime is a large reservoir of energy. In rough analogy, a reservoir of water can be used to produce electric power using gravitation. The latter comes from curvature of spacetime. As long as the turbine parts are not worn down by usage, the energy can always be generated. Note that none of the devices advcocated in ECE theory can be described as "perpetual motion machines". Usually the latter are associated with some incorrectly perceived violation of conservation of energy. So the reservoir in devices that take energy is the Cartan torsion of spacetime. The reservoir that creates gravitation, which keeps us on the ground, is the Cartan curvature of spacetime. The working parts of any device might wear out after a few years of use, but spacetime is always there. So ECE has removed the primary objection which used to appear in the older literature - that of violation of conservation of energy. It seemed to some people in the past that the energy was coming from nothing, thus violating conservation of energy. In fact it is a transfer of energy from spinning spacetime.

    In ECE, both torsion and gravity are present in every point in spacetime. The needle of a compass rotates due to spacetime torsion until it reaches a kind of equlibrium. Therefore, it can't rotate continuously.

    Note that we are only vouching for this specific device by Bedini and not the other devices that he has built. Some AIAS members replicated the SG motor. In our opinion, this specific device is evidence of SCR-induced voltage surges and this is discussed in paper 94 .Bedini's SG motor has met the basic requirements for reproducibilty and repeatability, in our view.

    Finally, the AIAS is very aware that extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence (and that a patent is not proof that the claims are valid e.g. "ESP Hand clapper"). The completion of
    paper 94 was delayed for nearly three months as a result. Various AIAS members have discussed this at length and are confident with the results presented in paper 94 . We hope that engineering and physics departments in respected institutions simply reproduce the device and check the results carefully.

  6. Are there any publically observable phenomena that serves as experimental proof for ECE ?

    The change of polarization in light deflected by gravitation and spiral galaxies Aharonov Bohm effects, Sagnac effect, Faraday disk generator, and the Inverse Faraday effect . Please visit this page for more details.
  7. Where does the electric field of an electron come from ?

    Short Answer: Since physics is geometry, the electric field is geometric and therefore part of spacetime - just like gravity. Therefore, no source is needed. Electromagetism is the torsion- and gravity the curvature of spacetime. (Actually, in terms of differential geometry, torsion is really a kind of curvature as well).

    Long Answer: The Coulomb law is the most precise law in classical electrodynamics (Jackson third edition) and in ECE is the law is obtained from the Bianchi identity of geometry. The static field is a limit of the dynamic field when source charges move very slowly. Neglecting the vector potential the electric field in ECE is:

    E = - (∇ + ω) φ

    where ω is the spin connection and φ the scalar potential (time-like part of the tetrad). The electric field is therefore geometrical in origin, and part of space-time itself. Space-time itself does not have an origin, and so the electric field is due entirely to the primordial voltage cA(0), which is ever present and proportional to the charge on the electron, -e. Is the quantity -e created at some point? This is what the so called source charge problem comes down to. -e is always present and time independent. The field in ECE propagates at c in the vacuum, but the phase velocity of a wave may be v in a medium. The static electric field may be considered as the limit of a plane wave when:

    ω (t - Z / c) → 0

    This means either that the angular frequency is infinitely low, or t = Z / c. So one may regard the static electric field as being defined by:

    Z = tc

    or by

    c = Z / t

    So in this sense it is moving , as in the flow of a river, the water is moving but the river seems to be always there. The electric field is moving at c, even though it is phase free ("static"). Its energy is

    En = ε0 E2 dV
  8. What is the B(3) field ?

    Easy answer: The B(3) field (pronounced "bee three") is always present in an electromagnetic wave. This is because all electromagnetic waves are actually circularly polarized. Linearly polarized waves involve two circular polarizations which cancel out making the B(3) field undetectable. The Inverse Faraday Effect (IFE) is how one detects the B(3) field. Another way to think about this is to consider the concepts of linear- and angular momentum. Photons can impart linear momentum onto atoms and electrons e.g. the Compton effect. However, photons can also impart angular momentum if they are circularly polarised. When talking about B(3) one is referring to the wave nature of light rather than its particle nature. Also bear in mind that we are also talking about a single photon, not a beam of light. A circularly-polarized laser beam, used in the IFE experiment will have millions of individual B(3) fields, one per photon.

    Below is a rough diagram giving an idea of the B(3) field. Please note that the diagram is slightly misleading as it implies that the photon is a particle, rather than a wave (with respect to our discussion, of course).


    B(3) field

    The entire electromagnetic wave rotates and the B(1) and B(2) fields fluctuate (since it is a wave). Please do not confuse the B(3) field with the static magnetic field B. Also note that the B(3) field is very small compared to the other B fields. Finally, remember that we are dealing with a four dimensional spacetime phenomenon even though the diagram is three dimensional (well, a two dimensional representation).

    Watch the award winning video, "Laser Effects on Molecular Dynamics in Optically Active Media", made with Chris Pelkie in 1990 now available on Google Video. It gives a better description of the effect which is now called the B(3) field.

    Final note: The electric field was not discussed.

    Difficult answer: The B(3) spin field is the magnetic flux density generated by the spin connection of a space-time with torsion. It signals the fact that electrodynamics is a sector of a generally covariant unified field theory. In the latter a magnetic flux density is defined in indexless notation by:

    F = d Λ A + ω Λ A

    where F is the field form, A is the potential form, Λ denotes the wedge product, and where ω is the spin connection. In Maxwell Heaviside field theory:

    F = d Λ A

    and this theory does not self consistently form part of general relativity because it does not define a B(3) field and is Lorentz covariant only, not generally covariant.

    In Einstein Cartan Evans (ECE) theory the B(3) field is part of the ω Λ A term and is observed experimentally in many ways, because the electromagnetic phase is defined by B(3). The latter is also observed in the magnetization of matter by an electromagnetic field (the inverse Faraday effect). It may also be stated that B(3) is observed in the Aharonov Bohm effects, which depend on ω Λ A, and in general in any effect that depends on the magnetic flux density inherent in ω Λ A. Without the B(3) field there can be no generally covariant unified field theory as required by the fundamental philosophy of relativity.

Updated: 2008-01-27


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