Alpha Institute for Advanced Studies (AIAS)

Ubi materia, ibi geometria. Lle mae 'na fater, mae 'na geometreg.
Wo Materie ist, dort ist Geometrie. Where there is matter, there is geometry.

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News and Updates

Formerly AIAS blog

A secondary electric current of a DC solenoid - including forthcoming discussion

July 19th, 2024

If a potential flux current (the new type of current, formerly denoted the ECE homogeneous current) is present, we can find new electrostatic effects.

Outside of a solenoid, there can be electric secondary fields. If the magnetic field in the solenoid is time-dependend; this follows from the Faraday law directly. However, in a solenoid for the AB effect, for example, we will have a constant magnetic field. In such a case, a potential current V (homogeneous current) creates an electric field according to the extended Faraday law

curl E = V.

Then we have

div B /= 0.

I have investigated such a case even years ago in an "unfinished" paper that found its way to the AIAS website:
Effects of the homogeneous current of ECE theory.
It contains some graphics that describe the primary and secondary fields.

I was hinted to a paper of Torres and Assis:
The Influence of the Electric Field Outside a Resistive Solenoid on The Aharonov-Bohm Effet.
They found such effects via a non-relativistic approach for the currents (Galilean relativity). The authors showed that such electric fields can contribute to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. In this case, it leads to the same results as applying the potential flux current, in principle. In our case, however, there is no need to question special relativity.

A further discussion of this subject suggests considering UFT paper 385. Therein, the spin connections of dipole fields are investigated. A short coil approximately produces a magnetic dipole field. According to ECE2 theory, the vector spin connection can be interpreted as a vector potential. This gives rise to additional fields, compared to the classical view of magnetic fields and vector potentials. Of course, an additional vector potential would contribute to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, as the additional electric field of Torres and Assis does. This is another hint that the ECE structures should lead to measurable deviations from standard theory. The authors cite papers in which an outer electric field of current-carrying conductors has been found. This gives strong hints to the potential flux current, which is a potential that flows outside the conductors.

Part IV of the series of papers on the homogeneous current published

July 19th, 2024

The series of papers on the homogeneous current, now called the potenial flux current, has been completed by publishing the fourth part:
The homogeneous and inhomogeneous ECE current, Part IV.
Questions of practrical relevance for engineers have been addressed: Kirchhoff's laws and the AC impedance of circuit elements. Both have been extended to the "dual laws" for the potential flux current. Voltages are dual to currents and vice versa, which requires a rethink in understanding circuit behavior. The paper should enable an engineering with this type of current.

Comment on a paper on Minkowski space by Nechitaylo

June 24th, 2024

We were hinted to a paper of A. Y. Necitaylo in Physics Essays:
The paradox of Minkowski space: Imaginary unit i is not a number but an action sign.
Douglas Lindstrom's comment: A significant flaw in Necitaylo's paper in my view is thinking that (c t) is equivalent to the length on the three spatial axes. This is not true on a conceptual level if for no other reason that we don’t measure time with a ruler but tend to measure it in terms of number of oscillations of some periodic “pendulum” as counted a clock. This shows up if you consider a simple wave in a dispersion free medium, the wave theory for example, where the spatial aspects of the wave are addressed with the wavenumber, the number of events that occur along a ruler of a given length, and the temporal aspects as the number of events that occur in a given number of "tick-tocks" on a carefully controlled Cesium "pendulum". We have to define a factor that links the two when the events being measured by the ruler and the clock are the same events, this factor is the velocity (of light) in today’s physics.

Part III of the series of papers on the homogeneous current published

March 8th, 2024

The third paper of the series on the homogeneous current has been published now as Paper 456 on the AIAS website. My co-author Anil and I are presenting very interesting results, for example that the Heaviside energy flow exists and that propagation velocities of e-m waves greater than speed of light are possible:
The homogeneous and inhomogeneous ECE current, Part III.
The homogeneous current has been renamed "potential density" or "area flow density of potentials", because it has units of V/m^2.

Subquantum Kinetics by Paul LaViolette

March 6th, 2024

I looked through an article on Subquantum Kinetics (SQK) by LaViolette:
and compared it with the statements of the ECE theory. In most cases, both come to the same results, with the difference that ECE is based on a deeper understanding of nature (fluid dynamic aether). SQK is based on chemical reaction equations that are assumed for the formation of matter from aether particles. The equations connect e-m and gravitational fields, but it is not a unified field theory like ECE. A table of comparison is given.

Part III of the series of papers on the homogeneous current

March 2nd, 2024

The third paper of the series on the homogeneous current is in preparation. This current turned out to be a current of electric potentials rather than magnetic monopoles. My co-author Anil and I are presenting startling results, for example that the Heaviside energy flow exists and that propagation velocities of e-m waves greater than speed of light are possible.

The paper is based on Anil's big treatise of Clifford algebra applied to Maxwell's theory, see the Publications section on the AIAS website: Evolved Approach.pdf.
In the current paper, we avoided Clifford algebra and derive some main results by standard vector algebra. This gives only a subset of results described in Anil's paper, but in the current paper we tried to find a smooth transition in order to not overload the reader with new mathematics.

The paper will be published as Paper 456 on the AIAS website.

Electrodynamics by Clifford algebra

January 19th, 2024

The researcher Anil Goel, who works with the Munich group, has written a comprehensive article on the fundamentals of electrodynamics. This is based on Clifford Algabra, which is an extension of the usual vector analysis. It is known that Maxwell originally wrote down his equations in the form of quaternions, which are a subalgebra of Clifford algebra. Heaviside simplified this representation to the well-known vector algebra, which oversimplified certain relationships.

In Clifford algebra, for example, two types of E and B fields arise, which allow perpendicular and parallel interaction, so that, among other things, the Beltrami fields that we use emerge. Together with the symmetrical current densities (electrical and magnetic) used by ECE, additional terms arise in the e-m energy density, which describe not only the energy flow in an electrical conductor but also the energy flow outside the conductor, which is also known as Heaviside energy (according to an old conjecture by Heaviside). Tesla, for example, exploited this energy flow in his inventions.

I am in the process of writing a shorter article that describes Anil's key findings within the framework of ECE theory in vector form and does not require Clifford algebra. This will be part III of the series "The homogeneous and inhomogeneous ECE current". Anil's results definitely bring a significant gain in knowledge of the basics of electromagnetism and their applications.

Anil's article is available on the AIAS website under Publications/Other papers. Direct link: Evolved Approach.pdf

Magnetic monopoles found by experiments

December 19th, 2023

ECE theory predicts the existence of magnetic monopoles on basis of the symmetry of the field equations. In the same way, as the Coulomb and Ampere-Mawell law have charge density and current on their right sides, the Gauss and Faraday law should have a magnetic monopole density and current on their right sides as "inhomogeneity terms". These have been predicted already by Dirac.

In the last time, several experiments have been reported in which such monopoles have been observed. In Cambridge, researchers have found magnetic monopoles in hematite in form of isolated magnetic charges. Hermatite is an iron oxide that has a rhombohedral lattice structure.
Magnetic Revolution: Diamonds and Rust Rewrite Physics Textbooks.

Atatüre, the Head of Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, said: "If monopoles did exist, and we were able to isolate them, it would be like finding a missing puzzle piece that was assumed to be lost".

In another case, the London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN), has found magnetic monopoles in spin ice:
From the website:
"The research shows how certain real materials, in this case spin ice, create within themselves things that resemble the basic particles by which the universe is composed. The amazing thing about spin ice monopoles" continues Prof. Bramwell, "is how perfect they are: they really do look just like those monopoles expected to exist somewhere in the universe. Why nature should reproduce a mini-universe within a material, we do not yet know".

As early as in 2015, the Helmholtz Center Berlin reported about magnetic quasi-particle monopoles in dysprosium titanate:
"With their investigations, the scientists have shown fundamental properties of matter that were previously unknown. And they provided experimental evidence for the existence of magnetic monopoles according to Paul Dirac's calculations - albeit only as quasi-particles in a solid".
(please translate to English).

Obviously, the existence of magnetic monopoles can no longer be denied.

Update of Paper 454 published

November 11th, 2023

The first paper on the homogeneous and inhomogeneous current has been updated. It is shown that the Lorentz force is part of both currents. In the earlier version, this was only formulated as an obvious suggestion. The proof was already given in Myron's notes for Paper 349. We now know that both currents are representable by a conductivity term based on the E or B field, and a Lorentz force term (or inverse Lorentz force term, respectively), governed by the B or E field. For the current of charge carriers this is obvious, but for the homogeneous current these are completely new results. Details will further be analyzed in Part III of this series of papers, which I am planning to write in next time.

Spanish version of ECE video published

November 3rd, 2023

The Spanish version of the ECE video has been published on the AIAS website, see "Lecture Material/Videos and Slide Sets", and the Spanish Section of the AIAS website. The Youtube link is:

Spanish version of Paper 453 published

September 28th, 2023

The Spanish version of Paper 453 (the Horst-Eckardt extensions of ECE theory) has been published in the Spanish section of the AIAS website.

Modern Development Methods in ECE Theory

September 27th, 2023

This website is a platform for presenting both ECE theory and the essential continuing research into its application. Before his untimely passing, Myron Evans had successfully completed the development of the mathematics of ECE theory. After Myron's passing, Horst Eckardt expanded the topics of ECE theory to include more fundamental questions that address the foundations of science, and also provided innovative and precise answers to them. The development of ECE theory is now moving towards applications, for which the use of computers for numerical and symbolic calculations is very helpful. Computer analysis and simulation is now considered to be a third pillar of physics that complements traditional theoretical and experimental physics. Computational physics was first adapted to ECE theory, and then selected techniques were developed further. A summary of the history and application of this field is given in the new article "Modern Development Methods in ECE Theory", which is linked from the front page of this website.

New papers on the homogeneous current and its connection to Tesla

September 9th, 2023

Two new ECE papers, 454 and 455, have been published, and they address a question that is as old as ECE theory itself: What is the homogeneous current? Originally, we considered it to be a current of hypothetical magnetic charges. This is not wrong, but there is a second interpretation that is much more conclusive: it is an electric polarization current in the vacuum. Using this approach, we can explain how Tesla has drawn energy from the vacuum through (unplanned) direct application of spin connection resonance. These papers should improve the understanding of Tesla's work, and facilitate new engineering ideas.

Video on ECE theory with Chinese subtitles

September 2nd, 2023

A new version of the video on ECE theory has been published with Mandarin subtitles. Now our Chinese colleagues have a chance to understand the content without having to listen intently to the English soundtrack.

New paper on the achievements of AIAS since 2019

August 24th, 2023

Since 2019, ECE has made significant progress in investigating principle questions of physics. The Aether concept has been defined, the intrinsic nature of force fields has been investigated, and the origin of charges and masses could be shown to be based on basic properties of Cartan geometry. On a more philosophical level, ECE can even be extended to more than four dimensions. We summarize this progress under the name "Horst-Eckardt Extensions" (HEE). ECE can now be called a "theory of everything" (TOE).

AIAS website restructured

July 30th, 2023

We proudly present the new design of the AIAS website. The basic look and feel has been preserved, but the content has been restructured. Also, the navigation bar has been redesigned to make it easier to find topics. For example, the Omnia Opera (Myron Evans' Collected Works) page is now directly accessible from the Scientific Work tab of the main menu.

We invite you to explore and enjoy our new site.

The papers of Whittaker 1903

May 11th, 2023

The mathematician E. T. Whittaker wrote two papers in 1903, in which he describes general solution of the wave equation for electromagnetic potentials. I studied these papers. Whittaker computes general solutions of the wave equation that are derived from a special form of an integral. In the first paper, the result is that a static physical potential of type 1/r can be represented by a superposition of many time-dependent components that are integrated over their wavelengths. The result is similar to the ECE result in UFT paper 447, where the electric (or gravitational) field is described by a permanent flow of aether. Whittaker uses the non-relativistic wave equation, while the ECE result comes from the antisymmetry law of generally relativistic theory.

In the second paper, Whittaker uses the method of "retarded potentials" in Maxwell's equations, which in principle is a method of special relativity. He needs only two types of scalar potentials, while in Maxwell (and ECE) we have four components (scalar and vector potential). Whittaker uses a special spherical coordinate representation which is obviously the reason why he only needs two components.

He then derives vector equations for the definitions of the force fields E and B, using two vectors f and g, built from the two scalar potentials (without specifying their specific form). The force fields now look symmetrical, in contrast to the 2-potential representations. However, his additional vectors are still defined relative to a special choice of the coordinate system. There is only a partial relation to the "normal" potentials, namely

A = curl g

for the vector potential A. This may be the reason that some authors speak of a "third level of fields and potentials". However, this opinion cannot be maintained in this way because there is no relation between the usual scalar potential and f and g, for example.

Another point of critique is that the wave eqautions for the potentials are derived in their usual form by using the Lorentz gauge of potentials. Since the functions f and g primarily describe the vacuum, this is an inadmissible simplification, if the potentials are ascribed a physical meaning, as is the case in ECE theory, for example.

It has to be kept in mind that in 1903 there was no quantum mechanics, but Whittaker mentioned that a preferred direction of electron motion in atoms could be important, which was fully realized, for example, by the electron spin later.

New video on ECE theory

February 27th, 2023

So far, there is only an older film about ECE, made by Fucilla in 2008. Since then, there has been a great development of ECE theory. I have produced a video that gives an overview on all the main results of ECE in a popular form. Although the video is "popular style" and avoids complicated mathematics, it will be fully understandable only if you have a certain grasp of technology and engineering. Nevertheless, the first third of the video gives a rough overview that should be understandable by everyone.

The video is actually a slide show with overlays. A form with animations would be better but would require enormously more effort. I hope you will enjoy it.

Current links on Youtube:

English version:

German version:

Current links on Google drive:

English version:

German version:

ECE textbook vol. 1 published

February 27th, 2023

I'm happy to announce that the ECE textbook is out. It can be ordered from Amazon.

For any reason, it is listed as "currently not available". I was told that this is normal for books that are printed on demand.

For better success, I recommend the shop of ePubli.

For people wondering about the unusual graphical design, looking like a fairy tale book: This is a book whose content may appear like a "fairy tale" to hardcore physicists adhering to standard physics only. :-)

ECE - The Theory of Everything

August 19th, 2022

ECE theory provides a unification of electrodynamics, mechanics, gravitation, fluid dynamics and quantum mechanics. This unification is based on the concepts of general relativity., which justifies naming ECE a "theory of everything". We will be using this view to clarify developments that have taken nearly 20 years to refine.

On the overview sheet, we show that all of the referenced areas of physics are based on the same equations of geometry, and these equations are presented in an easy-to-read form. On the second page, the variables and symbols are explained, and on the third page additional details on Cartan geometry are provided, which may be of interest only to specialists.

TOE-2022 Download

Eine neue Errungenschaft im Verständnis der Grundlagen der Physik

July 5th, 2022

(Translation of the preceding post)

In den UFT-Artikeln 449-451 haben wir beschrieben, wie eine zentralsymmetrische Raumzeit elektromagnetische Kraftfelder erzeugen kann, ohne dass echte elektrische Ladungen vorhanden sind. Diese Felder ergeben sich aus der Geometrie selbst. Das Modell ist auf sehr unterschiedlichen Skalen anwendbar und zeigt eine fraktale Struktur. Mit diesem Modell lassen sich die im Zentrum von Galaxien entstehenden Materie-Jets erklären, bis hin zu kleinsten Materieeinheiten, Elementarteilchen und sogar deren Bestandteilen, die im Standardmodell als "Quarks" bezeichnet werden.

Um den subatomaren Bereich vollständig abzudecken, muss angenommen werden, dass die Raumzeit den Prinzipien der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie unterliegt. Bei der Entwicklung der ECE-Theorie wurde festgestellt, dass die m-Theorie ein sehr nützliches und vielseitiges Werkzeug ist, um eine solche Beschreibung der Raumzeit bereitzustellen. Die m-Theorie ist eine Verallgemeinerung der Raumzeitmetrik ("Schwarzschild-Metrik"), die zur Beschreibung "Schwarzer Löcher" in der Einsteinschen Theorie verwendet wurde. In der Arbeit des AIAS-Instituts wurde diese Metrik verallgemeinert, um jede Art Raumverzerrung beschreiben zu können. Sie ist im einfachsten Fall kugelsymmetrisch und hängt nur von der radialen Koordinate ab. In dieser Form wurde sie auf eine kugelsymmetrische Raumzeit angewendet. Bei Annäherung an das Kugelzentrum führt die Metrik der m-Theorie zu einer Verringerung der Ätherdichte, die im Zentrum selbst gegen Null geht. Dieses Verhalten war erforderlich, um Ergebnisse zu erhalten, die mit den im Standardmodell beschriebenen experimentellen Befunden kompatibel sind. Wir können dies dahingehend interpretieren, dass das Zentrum jeder elementaren Materieeinheit leer ist. Der Eindruck von physikalischer Materie (mit all ihren quantenmechanischen und makroskopischen Konsequenzen) kommt von einer Wirbelstruktur, die von einem rotierenden Äther oder der Raumzeit selbst gebildet wird.

Da im geometrischen Modell keine elektrischen Ladungen angenommen werden, ist bemerkenswert, dass die von der zentralsymmetrischen Raumzeit erzeugten Kräfte eine Divergenz aufweisen, die einer Quellenladung entspricht. Diese Ladung ist ausschließlich topologischen Ursprungs. Mit anderen Worten, die zentralsymmetrische Raumzeit erzeugt eine Struktur, die wir als elektrische Ladungen erfahren. Außerdem wurde ein aus magnetischen Monopolen gebildeter Dipol gefunden. Das bedeutet, dass die Divergenz von Magnetfeldern nicht Null ist, wie dies in der Standardphysik und Elektrotechnik üblicherweise angenommen wird. Insgesamt haben wir den Ursprung der Ladungen entschlüsselt, was bisher ein Rätsel in der Wissenschaft war. Das zweite Rätsel in der Wissenschaft, die Natur der Gravitation, wurde bereits im UFT-Artikel 447 entschlüsselt. Wir haben also einen bedeutenden Fortschritt in der Wissenschaft und in der Naturphilosophie gemacht.

A new achievement in understanding the foundations of physics

July 5th, 2022

In the papers 449-451, we have described how a centrally symmetric spacetime is able to produce electromagnetic force fields, without the presence of real electric charges. These fields arise from the geometry itself. The model is applicable on very different scales, showing a fractal structure. By this model, the jets of matter arising in the center of galaxies can be explained, down to the smallest entities of matter, elementary particles and even their constituents that are denoted as "quarks" in the Standard Model.

To fully cover the sub-atomic range, the spacetime has to be assumed to underlie the principles of general relativity. Within the development of ECE theory, it was found that m theory is a very ueful and versatile tool to provide such a description of spacetime. m theory is a generalization of the spacetime metric ("Schwarzschild metric") that was used to describe "black holes" in Einsteinian theory. In the work of the AIAS institute, this metric has been generalized to describe any space distortion. In the simplest case, it is spherically symmetric and depends on the radial coordinate only. In this form it has been applied to a spherically symmetric spacetime. When approaching the spherical center, the metric of m theory leads to a reduction of the aether density, which goes to zero at the center itself. This behavior was required to obtain results that are compatible with the experimental findings described in the Standard Model. We can interpret this in saying that the center of each elementary matter unit is empty. The impression of physical matter (with all it quantum-mechanical and macrosopic consequences) comes from a vortex structure formed by a rotating aether or spacetime itself.

Since no electric charges are assumed in the geometric model, it is remarkable that the forces produced by the centrally symmetric spacetime have a divergence, which corresponds to a source charge. This charge is of topological origin exclusively. In other words, the centrally symmetric spacetime produces a structure, which we experience as electric charges. In addition, a dipole constituted from magnetic monopoles was found. This means that the divergence of magnetic fields is not zero as is normally assumed in standard physics and electrical engineering. In total, we have found the origin of charges, which was an enigma of science so far. The second enigma of science, the nature of gravitation, has already been unraveled in UFT paper 447. So we have made a significant progress in science and in natural philosophy.

Describing the structure of elementary particles by ECE geometry

June 14th, 2022

In recent papers 449 and 450, a centrally symmetric spacetime was investigated in the view of Cartan geometry. The result is that this structure generates force fields, which partially have a divergence and curl. The divergence can be consideres as a "topoligical" source of matter. I am extending this model to a rotating spherical spacetime in Paper 451. Rotation is everywhere, because there are no fixed points in the universe. The rotation generates 6 fields, 3 electric and 3 magnetic, in total. These are at the same time matter fields, because ECE theory is a unified field theory. The result can be compared with the 6 "quarks" of elementary particle theory (3 "up" and 3 "down" quarks), by which ordinary matter (consisting of protons and neutrons) is made. The other 12 quark types appear only under extreme conditions as in paricle accelerators or in the higher atmosphere. The ECE model could provide a structural model for matter that is based completely on geometry. No quantum theory was used for these considerations so far.

Paper 450: spherically symmetric spacetime, part II

June 8th, 2022

I have finished the preliminary version of paper 450, a continuation of paper 449 on topological fields, which are induced by the symmetry of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Topological (or virtual) charge and current densities are inferred. In particular, magnetic monopoles arise from the central symmetry structure. This seems to be the first time that such monopoles have been predicted by ECE theory. Paper450 Download

Paper on embedding of m theory into Cartan geometry

June 2nd, 2022

I attached the preliminary paper 449, which describes the embedding of m theory into Cartan geometry, using the example of a centrally symmetric spacetime. Astonishingly, a rotational B field structure appears that has no counterpart in the tetrad, in which no rotational elements are contained.

Draft of Vol. 2 of the ECE textbook

May 11th, 2022

The first two chapters of vol. 2 of the ECE textbook have been published as paper 448:

The numbering, starting with Chapter 11, extends the chapters of vol. 1. The chapters deal with foundations of quantum mechanics and the Fermion equation that is the ECE form of the Dirac equation. It was quite a hard piece of work to figure out the different ways that Myron had used to describe the spectroscopic methods. The underlying physical effects are multiply derived in Chapter 12, giving slightly different results according to the computation method (non-rel., rel., Dirac etc.). Since spectroscopy was Myron's original field of work, I presented this in some detail. The description is "only" 20 pages, but they contain a concentrated load of mathematics based on Pauli algebra. All equations have been checked by computer algebra. At the time writing the original papers, we had not enough experience with this. Therefore some corrections had to be made in the sequence of papers. Meanwhile we can be sure that all equations are correct.

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